Person-centred or client-centred counselling usually forms the basis of most counsellors' approaches, this is usually described as identifying individuals as basically good but recognising that in any person's life adverse circumstances occur. Person-centred counselling advocates working with clients on a basis of equality.
The Existential approach stresses the individual's capacity for freedom and choice and places an emphasis on the need to value the unique and subjective world of the individual and explore the roots of the individual's anxiety and uncertainty.
The central focus of Gestalt counselling is on the present. Clients may be experiencing issues that are derived from past experiences but the focus is very much on the client's present feelings.
A psychodynamic approach explores the person's past and patterns of relating to others that may still be troubling the person and are indeed still being repeated and played out in the person's life.
Transactional analysis (also called T/A) is an approach that that links troubled behaviour and feelings to early experience. It encourages each person to become more autonomous and encourages each person to acknowledge their capacity to change and improve.